翻译新闻

译洁淄博翻译公司:常用主从连接词as的译法

来源:网络  作者:本站  发布时间:2019年08月20日  阅读次数:   次


主从连接词(也称关联词)主要用来连接主句和从句。在科技英语中,使用主从连接词的频率非常高。as在科技英语中是个非常活跃的连接词,它可以引导定语从句、时间状语从句、方式状语从句、原因状语从句、让步状语从句、比较状语从句以及插入句等。

 

1. 引导定语从句

(1) 引导限制性定语从句

在限制性定语从句中,as常常与such或the same连用,构成“such...as”和“the Same...as”结构。as所代替的是作先行词的名词,所以在其引导的限制性定语从句中可以作从句的主语、宾语或表语。从句谓语若是be可以省略。可译为“与……相同的”、“像……一祥的”等。

* When gases are heated, they act in exactly the same way as liquid does.

气体受热时的情况与液体受热时的情况完全相同。

* The equipment wants such materials as can withstand high temperature and strong stress.

这种设备需要像那种能承受高温和强应力一样的材料。

* The bolt clearance hole shall have the same diameter and tolerances as the test washer.

螺栓通孔应该具有和试验型圈同样的直径与公差。


有时也可以根据需要灵活翻译。如:

* Automation is not the same thing as mechanization.

自动化和机械化不是一回事。


(2) 引导非限制性定语从句

在非限制性定语从句中,as作为关系代词代替整个主句,在从句中多作主语,as从句中的系动词be常常可以省略。as引导的从句位置比较灵活,可以位于主句之前、之中或主句之后。一般用逗号与主句隔开,可译为“如”、“正如……一样”、“根据”、“这”等。如:

* As described above, the laser beam is much more powerful than other light beams.

如上所迷,激光束比其他光束要强烈的多。

* As is noted in the preceding section, two essential elements of any computer are a memory and a processor.

正如前一节指出的那样,任何计算机的两个基本単元是储存器和处理器。

* Practically, different phases of an alloy act as poles of tiny electrical cells, as do parts of pure metals.

实际上,合金的不同相起着微型电池两极的作用,正像纯金属的各部分作用一样。 


2. 引导时间状语从句

作为连接词,as可以引导时间状语从句,在句中的位置比较灵活,译为“(当)…… 时”、“随着”等。如:

* As the loop rotates from position A to position B, the conductors are cutting through more and more lines of force until at 90 degrees they are cutting through a maximum number of lines of force.

当线圈从A位向B位旋转时,导线就切割越来越多的磁力线,直到90度时切割磁力线的数目最大为止。

* Human leg veins are repeatedly squeezed by the leg muscles as people walk or run.

当人走路或跑步时,人腿静脉反复受到腿部肌肉挤压。


3. 引导原因状语从句

作为连接词,as可以引导原因状语从句,从句可在主句之前,也可在主句之后。 译为“因为”、“由于”等。如:

* As the speed of neutrons is reduced, they become thermal neutrons.

由于中子減速,它们变为热中子。

* Over-current on all electrical devices is undesirable, as it produces excessive temperatures, inefficient operation, and reduced service life.

所有电气设备都不可以过电流运行,因为这会导致设备过热,效率降低,且寿命减少。 


4. 引导方式状语从句

as引导的方式状语从句位置比较灵活,并常常和just连用,可译为“正像…… 一样(那样)”、“正如……一样(那样)”、“同……一样”,“如同”等,有时可译为汉语的定语。如:

* Just as magnets have north and south poles, electric charges have the opposite polarities.

正像磁铁有南北极一祥,电荷也有相反的极性。

* Partitions, as they are normally called, are internal waits built of the same materials as the other types of walling previously described.

—般所说的隔墙,通常是指内墙体,它所使用的材料与上述几种类型的墙体相同。

* The direction of rotation of the current is as viewed from the nearside of the coil. 

电流旋转的方向与我们观察线圈靠近我们这边所见到的方向相同。


5. 引导比较状语从句

在as...as, not as (so)...as等结构中,后ー个as可作为连接词引导比较状语从句(常常以省略的形式出现),表示肯定时可译为“和(与)……一样(同样)”,表示否定时可译为“和……不一样”、“不如(没有)……那样”等。如:


* The coupling structure is as same as the HP turbine rotor.

其联轴节的结构与高压汽轮机转子相同。

* The turboprop engine will not move a plane as rapidly as a jet, but it is more efficient. 

用涡轮螺旋浆发动机推进飞机不像喷气发动机那样快吗,但效率较高。


as引导的比较从句很多情况下不能按以上的固定格式翻译,经常要根据需要灵活翻译。如: 

* For certain uses there is no metal as good as steel.

就某些用途而言,没有哪种金属比得上钢。

* Absolutely pure water comes as near as possible to being an ideal non-conductor.

绝对洁净的水极其接近理想的非导体。


6. 引导让步状语从句

as作为连接词,可引导让步状语从句。as引导的让步状语从句要采用倒装语序,构成“形容词(副词)+as +主语+系词(或动词)”结构。汉译时可译为“虽然”、 “尽管”等。如:

* Very light as these particles are, their energies are considerable because of their high speed.

尽管这些粒子很轻,但由于速度很快,因而能量很大。

* Simple as it is, this method does not make very strong magnets.

这ー方法虽然简单,但却不能产生很强的磁铁。


400-631-8682